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中考《英语》知识点梳理:词类

2016-11-21 14:41 0人评论 次浏览

一.冠词重难点:

1.a和an区别2.a加序数词和the加序数词3.定冠词the用法4.不用冠词情况5.in hospital/in the hospital,in front of/in front of,at table/at the table,by sea/by the sea,go to school/go to the school,next year/the next year,a(the)teacher and writer/a(the)teacher and a(the)writer

二.名词重难点:

1.中考常见的既可数又不可数的名词归纳chicken小鸡鸡肉room房间空间exercise运动练习light灯光glass玻璃杯玻璃time次数倍数时间fruit水果种类水果study书房学习work作品工作fish鱼肉种类orange橙子橙汁hair头发几根头发集体名词family,class,team,group,row,police2.中考常见的不可数名词news advice weather fun information pity3.不规则变化的名词man-men woman-women policeman-policemen foot-feet tooth-teeth goose-geese German-Germans4.单复数相同的名词sheep deer fish people Chinese Japanese Catonese Portuguese5.只有复数形式的名词thanks,glasses,gloves,clothes,pants,trousers,shorts,socks,shoes,sneakers6.只能修饰可数名词复数的词many,several,a few,few,a(large)number of7.只能修饰不可数名词的词much,a little,little,a great deal of,8.既能修饰可数名词复数又能修饰不可数名词的词some,a lot of,lots of,plenty of 9.名词用法辨析:1、sport、game、match、race 2、festival、holiday、vacation3、journey、tour、trip、travel4、sound、noise、voice5、fish6.chick,chicken7.Clothes、cloth、clothing8.Game、sport9..gold、golden10.Journey、tour、trip、travel,voyage11.Photo、picture、drawing12.Problem、

question13.Road、path、street、way.14.work,works 15.green,greens 16.wood,woods 17.manner,manners 18..arm,arms

三.代词重难点:

1.人称代词物主代词反身代词之间转换2.one和it的区别3.other,the other,another,others,the others,the rest区别4..all,both,either,neither,none区别5.常见用法one—the other,both—and,either—or,neither—nor,not only—but also,so/neither+助+主,so/neither+主+助6.few、little、a few、a little7.many/much/too many/too much的用法

四.介词重难点:

1.简单介词at,in,on,about,across,before,beside,for,to,without2.by means of,along with,because of,in front of,instead of3.和动词搭配agree with,ask for,belong to,break away from,care about4.和形容词的搭配afraid of,angry with,different from,good at5.和名词的搭配answer to,key to,reason for,cause of,visit to6.at,on,in(表时间)7.between,among(表位置)8.beside,besides和except 9.in the tree,on the tree 10.on the way,in the way,by the way,in this way 11.in the corner,at the corner 12.in the morning,on the morning13.at the end of/by the end of,in the end14.as与like15.through与across16.by、in与with17.表示方式时间或地点介词in、on、at

五.连词重难点:

1并列连词.and,for,or,both…and,either…or,neither…nor2.从属连词that,if,whether,when,after,as soon as3.as far as就…来说4.hardly…when一…就5.as soon as一…就6.so-that和such-that7.not until8.because、as、since、for9.if、whether10.till/until与not…till/until11.prefer to…rather than…与prefer…to…

六.形容词副词重难点:

1.名前系后不定代词后2.只做表语形容词alone,asleep,afraid,awake,alive,well3.与make/keep/leave连用作宾补4.形容词副词比较级5.特殊词too much/much too,hard/hardly,free/freely,wide/widely,late/lately/latest,too/either/as well/also,whole

与all,tall与high,short与low,real与true,interested与interesting,good与well,nice与fine,quick、fast与soon,lonely与alone,other与else,gone、lost、missing living、alive、live、lively,sick与ill,the+形容词,already/yet,hard与hardly,how/what用于感叹句,sometimes、sometime、some times、some time,before long,long before 6.no more、no longer、not...any more、no...any longer7.形容词和副词的原级、比较级和最高级:1.原级用as-as--比较级用比较级+than2.“比较级+and+比较级”“越来越……”。如:The weather is getting warmer and warmer.3.“the+比较级…,the+比较级…”表示“越…就越…”4、一般的形容词或副词的比较级前面可以加much/a little/even/still,5.“one of the+最高级+名词(复数)5.more than=over;less than=under.

七.动词重难点:

1.动词的分类:实义动词连系动词助动词情态动词

2、动词词形变化:原形单三现在分词过去式和过去分词

3、动词八种时态:一般现在时一般过去时一般将来时现在进行时过去进行时现在完成时过去完成时过去将来时

4、被动语态:说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系

5、动词短语(www.yingyuzuowen.cn)

6,动词的非谓语形式:动词不定式、动名词和分词三种形式;其中分词又包含现在分词和过去分词两种形式动词不定式:后面可跟动词的不定式形式的情况

1.动词:

agree to do同意去做afford to do买得起decide to do决定去做某事hope to do希望去做wish to do希望去做fail to do做某事失败plan to do打算去做pretend to do假装去做refuse to do拒绝去做would like to do想要去做want to do想要去做某事learn to do学做prefer to do sth.喜欢(爱)做某事sb.seem to do sth好像做某事want/would like to do sth.想做used to do sth.过去常做某事

2.句型.

allow sb.to do sth.允许某人去做某事asked sb.(not)to do sth.叫某人做事某事(叫某人不要去做某事)tell sb.(not)to do sth.叫某人去(不要)做某事follow sb.to do sth.跟随某人去做某事get sb.to do sth.让某人做某事warn sb.(not)to do sth.警告某人做某事(或不要做某事)be amazed to do sth.对做某事感到惊讶be afraid to do sth.害怕做某事be excited to do sth.对做……感到兴奋be frightened to do sth.害怕去做某事be glad/happy to do sth.高兴去做某事be/get ready to do sth.准备做某事be sorry to do sth.对做某事感到抱歉be surprised to do sth.对做某事感到惊奇can’t wait to do sth.迫不急待地去做某事get/have a chance to do sth.得到一个做某事的机会It’s+adj.+(for sb.)to do sth.做某事(对某人来说)怎么样It’s+adj.+(of sb.)to do sth.It takes sb.some time/money to do sth.花费某人多长时间做某事(常考)It’s best for sb.to do sth.对某人来说做某事是最好的It’s time for sb.to do sth.是某人做某事的时候了too…(for sb.)to…太……以致不能…==not…enough to do prefer to do sth.rather than do sth.宁愿……而不愿……(常考)something to eat/drink一些吃/喝的东西Sth.is hard/difficult/easy to do做好某事很难/容易take turns to do sth.轮流做……There is no time(for sb.)to do sth.对(某人来说)没时间做某事了There is no need(for sb.)to do sth.对某人来说没必要做某事try/do one’s best to do sth.尽力去做某事、be supposed to do sth.find it+adj.to do sth.

动名词:后面可跟动词的ing形式的情况

1.动词:

finish doing sth.完成做某事enjoy doing sth.喜欢做某事practice doing sth.练习做某事imagine doing,想象做某事avoid doing sth.避免做某事consider doing sth.考虑做某事suggest doing sth.建议做某事mind doing sth.介意做某事keep doing sth.持续做某事

2.固定短语:feel like doing sth.喜欢做某事be busy doing sth.忙于做某事be worth doing值得做某事spend time(in)doing sth.花费时间(金钱)做某事have difficult/trouble in doing sth做某事有困难have fun doing.做某事高兴

3.介词后(on,in,of,about,at,with,without,for,from,up,by等):be good at doing sth.;thank you for doing sth.;give up doing sth.;stop sb.from doing sth.;do well in doing sth.;be afraid of doing sth.;be interested in doing sth.;be proud of;instead of;be fond of 4.to作介词的情况look forward to doing sth期望做某事;prefer doing sth.to doing sth与…相比较更喜欢…;pay attention to doing注意做某事;be/get used to doing sth.习惯于做某事;make a contribution to为…做贡献

后既能跟不定式也能跟动名词的情况:

1、有些动词接doing和to do意义相近像like(喜欢),love(喜欢),hate(憎恨),prefer(宁可),begin(开始),start(开始),continue(继续)如:like to do表示想要做某一具体的动作like dong表示一般或抽象的多次动作它们在实际使用中区别很小。

2、后加不定式或动名词区别较大的动词:remember to do(记住去做)remember doing(记得做过)forget to do(忘记去做)forget doing(忘记做过)try to do(设法做)try doing(试着做)go on to do(接着做另一事)go on doing(继续做同一事)stop to do(停下来去做)stop doing(停止做)can’t help to do(不能帮助做)can’t help doing(情不自禁做)后跟不带to的不定式(动词原形)的情况。

1.在感官动词和使役动词后feel,hear,listen to,watch,look at,see,notice,make,let,have等后跟动词不定式作宾语补足语时应省去不定式符号to但将此句改为被动句时,省去的不定式符号to应加上在动词help既可带to,也可不带to。

2.助动词或情态动词后:do,did,does,will,shall,would,should,can,may,must等后面接不带to的动词不定式。3.某些固定句型中1)Will(Would)you please(not)...?2)had better3)Why not...?4)would rather(not)...would rather...than...=would...rather than...5)在祈使语气(或口语)中。既可跟动词原形又可跟动词ing形式的情况。see/watch sb.do sth.看到某人做过(经常做)某事see/watch sb.doing sth.到某人正在做某事hear sb.do sth.听到某人做过(经常做)某事hear sb.doing sth.听到某人正在做某事分词:现在分词修饰物过去分词修饰人

动词用法辨析:

1.seem(好象)用法:①sb./sth.+seem+(to be+)形容词②sb./sth.+seem+like③sb/sth+seem+to(do)④It seems that+从句2.be afraid(害怕)用法:①be afraid of sth;be afraid of(doing);②be afraid to(do);③be afraid that+从句3.be sure(确信)用法:①be sure of(sth);②be sure to(do);③be sure that+从句4.put on、wear、have…on、be in、try on、dress5.like、love与enjoy6.look、see、watch、read7.hear、hear of、hear from8.speak、talk、say、tell 9.borrow、lend、keep10.bring、take、carry、send、lift11.take、spend、pay、cost12.arrive in/at、reach、get to13.be made of、be made from、be made into、be made in、be made by14.be used for、be used to、used to、get used to15.agree with/agree to/agree on16.die、dead、death17.leave,forget

八.句法重难点:

1.主谓一致2.简单句(陈述句:包括肯定句,否定句,祈使句.疑问句:一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句,反意疑问句)3.感叹句(How+形容词(副词)+主语+谓语What(a/an)+形容词+名词(单数/复数)+主语+谓语)4.并列句(and,or,but both…and,neither…nor,either…or,not only…but also)5.复合句(宾语从句,状语从句,定语从句)中考复习之从句1.宾语从句2.状语从句3.定语从句宾语从句三要素语序时态连接词宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序Can you tell me how I can get to zoo?Please tell me when we’ll have lunch宾语从句的时态1.

主现从任Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station?2.

主过从相He asked if you had written to Peter.He said that he would go back to the U.S.soon.3.

从客用现Scientists have proved that the earth turns around the sun.宾语从句的连接词1.that引导的宾语从句2.连接代词who,whom,whose,what,which和连接副词when,where,why,how引导的宾语从句3.if或whether引导的宾语从句状语从句分类及常用连词时间状语从句when,whenever,while,as,before,after,since,till,once(一旦)地点状语从句where,wherever原因状语从句because,since,as,for,now that(既然,由于)etc.(et cetera,等于and so on)目的状语从句in order that(为了,以便),so that,that,etc.结果状语从句so…that,so that,such…that,that,etc.条件状语从句if,unless,as(so)long as,etc.让步状语从句though,although,even if,even though,however,whatever,as,etc.比较状语从句as…as,so…as,than,etc.方式状语从句as,as if,as though,etc.定语从句1.结构先行词+连接词+定语从句2.关系代词有who,whom,whose,that,which,as关系副词when,where,why,how

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